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拉丁美洲海岸侵蚀的现状英文文献和中文翻译

时间:2021-01-16 21:53来源:毕业论文
Silva, R.; Martnez, M.L.; Hesp, P.; Catalan, P.; Osorio, A. F.; Martell, R.; Fossati, M.; Miot da Silva, G.; Mario-Tapia, I.; Pereira, P.; Cienfuegos, R.; Klein, A., and Govaere, G., 2014. Present and future challenges of coastal erosion in
Silva, R.; Martínez, M.L.; Hesp, P.; Catalan, P.; Osorio, A. F.; Martell, R.; Fossati, M.; Miot da Silva, G.; Mariño-Tapia, I.; Pereira, P.; Cienfuegos, R.; Klein, A., and Govaere, G., 2014.  Present  and  future  challenges  of  coastal erosion  in Latin America.  In: Silva, R., and Strusińska-Correia, A. (eds.), Coastal Erosion and Management along Developing Coasts: Selected Cases.  Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 71, pp. 1–16. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.  The coastal zones of Latin America have many  landforms  and environments,  including  sedimentary cliffs, deeply incised estuaries, headlands, barrier coasts and low lying, muddy coastal plains. These forms will respond differently to  the expected changes in climate and associated sea level rise, which may produce coastal erosion in the future. Considering the coasts of Latin America overall, erosion is not yet a serious threat, although it is widespread and it is severe in some parts. Major erosion problems are frequently associated with human intervention in sediment supply, with  poor planning  or  with  the morphodynamic nature of  the coast.  Permanent  erosional processes, locally or regionally,  are  caused by  tectonic subsidence, deforestation and  the  fragmentation of coastal ecosystems,  land use changes and sediment deficits because of infrastructure built along the coast. In this article we analyse coastal erosion in Latin America and the challenges it presents to the region. We first highlight the relevance of Latin America in terms of its biopersity; then  we  describe  the population at risk, demographic trends and economic growth throughout the low lying coastal zones. We also examine the vulnerability of the region by analyzing the resilience of key coastal ecosystems after exposure to the most frequent hazards that  affect  coastal zones  in Latin America, namely tropical cyclones, sea level rise, ocean acidification, earthquakes and tsunamis. Finally, we discuss seven case studies of coastal erosion across Latin America. We close the study by pinpointing the main areas of concern in Latin America and explore possible strategies to  overcome  erosion and thus  sustain economic growth, minimize population risk and maintain biopersity. 62285
ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS:  Coastal erosion, Low lying coastal areas, Low elevation coastal zone, coastal hazards, coastal resilience, Latin America. INTRODUCTION The morphology of coastal regions has always been partly shaped by erosion processes. Indeed the evolution of the Earth´s physical environment as a whole owes much to erosion. These processes were not given much attention until  the  adverse economic, social or  environmental effects felt by communities began to be linked to erosion.  In the Americas, long before the Conquest, several native navigation techniques (coastal, lacustrine and fluvial) existed, with numerous, perse wooden crafts being used (Biar, 2014). The construction of larger ports and associated infrastructure took place when Spaniards arrived in America and commerce with Europe became important (e.g., O’Rourke and Williamson, 2002). The necessity for harbours, and then  new coastal settlements, was followed by the construction of infrastructure and thus began the intensive modification of the coasts of The New World. For over four centuries land management, both inland and coastal, did not consider the coastal zone as an integral part of hydrological units such as watersheds. The consequence was that the relevance of coastal morphodynamics was not taken into account  until recently, when it became apparent that this was essential  for  the security and  economic wellbeing of coastal populations. The coastal zones  of Latin America feature a wide range of land  forms. Expected climate change will bring about sea level rise and the different  landforms will respond in different ways (e.g., Muehe, 2010). Therefore, it is necessary to explore the potential vulnerability of the distinct coastal types in response to climate change.  Since  risk  to people is a key factor in vulnerability, the risk is greatest  in the urbanized coasts, where the greatest impacts are expected to be caused by  floods. However, the absence of long-term observations of oceanographic  data  and detailed topo-bathymetric data  (e.g., González-Vázquez  et al., 2014) presents a major difficulty for the evaluation of different risk scenarios at local level and consequently  for the application of  strategies aimed at minimizing these impacts on the population. Coastal erosion along Latin American shorelines,  although widespread and in some parts severe, is not yet seen as a serious threat considering the coast as a whole. Major erosion problems are most frequently associated with human intervention in the sediment flux or are associated with  the morphodynamic nature of river mouths (e.g.,  Muehe,  2010).  拉丁美洲海岸侵蚀的现状英文文献和中文翻译:http://www.youerw.com/fanyi/lunwen_68458.html
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